Awesome detail in here, Rich. Great stuff!
Thank https://twitter.com/seo_theorist :-)
Completely agree with #2. Anchor text does still matter, you just have to be careful how much keyword anchor text is there and how varied it is.
I have to disagree with #1. Length is great in the long term, just because you'll be hitting a lot of keywords, and more content can lead to great discussions. However, a well written 600 words can spark a lot of discussion, which can lead to a lot of sharing across social channels and such. There is plenty to gain with short articles as well.
Great! Head over to login and use your credentials there